People with disabilities generally have to cope with numerous disadvantages in professional life and in society. Under certain conditions, people with disabilities may claim specific benefits and relief, so-called compensation for disadvantages (Nachteilsausgleich). This is the literal attempt to compensate them for some of the disadvantages and additional expenses they face.
The disabled person’s pass is a certification over your status as a severely disabled person. In it, the degree of your disablement (Grad der Behinderung, GdB) and also, where necessary, other health characteristics (symbols, Merkzeichen) are documented.
In order to receive a disabled person’s pass, you first have to apply for the recognition of the degree of your disablement. You can file the application with the maintenance council (Versorgungsamt) or in accordance with the federal state law. If a degree of disablement of at least 50 has been determined, you are severely disabled and therefore receive a disabled person’s pass.
In addition to that, the following symbols can be entered in your disabled person’s pass, dependent of the health restrictions that apply:
- aG extraordinary walking impediment (außergewöhnliche Gehbehinderung)
- H helpless as defined in the income tax law (hilflos im Sinne des Einkommensteuergesetzes)
- Bl blind (blind)
- Gl deaf (gehörlos)
- aG extraordinary walking impediment (außergewöhnliche Gehbehinderung)
- G severe impairments of mobility in traffic (erhebliche Beeinträchtigung der Bewegungsfähigkeit im Straßenverkehr)
- B entitlement to bring along an accompanying person (Berechtigung zur Mitnahme einer Begleitperson)
- RF discount on broadcasting (Ermäßigung des Rundfunkbeitrags)
- TBl deaf-blind (taubblind)
The disabled person’s pass and, if appropriate, the additional symbols are needed in order to claim certain rights and benefits (compensation for disadvantages), for example:
- special protection against dismissal based on labor law
- entitlement to additional holiday leave
- reductions concerning income taxation
- admission to use public transport free of charge
- admission to use parking spaces for the disabled, parking benefits
- exemption from costs for broadcasting (Rundfunkgebühren)
- reduced entrance to events
This means that these benefits and relief measures are only at the disposal of severely disabled people. However, there is one exception:
people with disabilities with a degree of disablement (GdB) already determined that is less than 50, but at least 30 shall be treated on equal footing as severely disabled people, if, as a consequence of their disability and without the equalization requested, they do not find or retain suitable employment. The equalization is a measure only aimed at the obtainment or preservation of employment. Thanks to it, people with disabilities may claim the same rights (additional holiday leave and deduction-free early retirement being an exception) in an employment relationship otherwise only reserved for the severely disabled, e. g. special protection against dismissal, entitlement to part-time employment).
There are diverse offers to promote the development of children with disabilities and to integrate them into everyday life and social life while taking their disabilities into account. Additionally, there are numerous education institutions that have specialized in working with children with disabilities.
Early support aims to reduce the child’s impairments as soon as possible and to promote its development with the help of directly targeted measures. Early support encompasses the diagnosis of the disease, therapy, pedagogical support and consultation as well as support for the family. The benefits are borne by social paediatric centers or interdisciplinary early support institutions. The contributions do not have to be paid by the parents themselves, but, when they are needed, they are borne by health insurance, responsible bodies for public child and youth services and the body responsible for integration support. Find more on this topic in the portal for children’s health of the Federal Centre for Health Education (Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung, BZgA).
Day care for children
Just like any other child, a child with a disability has the right to be supported in a day care center or day nursery as of the completion of the first life year. There are more and more inclusive day care centers where children with and without disabilities are being looked after together. Moreover, many day-care mothers and fathers are also working inclusively. Remedial day care centers (Heilpädagigischer Kindergarten) have specialized in care for children with disabilities. The costs are borne by the body for public child and youth services or the body responsible for integration support within the framework of integration support. Parents do not have to contribute to these costs.
When visiting an inclusive kindergarten, the usual cost contributions can be charged by the parents. If personal assistance is needed in order to attend kindergarten, the body for public child and youth services or integration support will bear the costs of these benefits. If the child needs medical support in kindergarten, health insurance can bear the costs categorized as home nursing costs.
Schools where children with and without disabilities are taught are called integrative schools. Here, children with and without disabilities can learn and be supported together. Children with special needs also have the opportunity to attend a special needs school. Those who need additional support in everyday school life due to a disability can be supported by a school assistant. School assistants often support several students at the same time. Under certain circumstances, necessary school assistance can be provided by the body for public child and youth services during afternoon care in so-called all-day comprehensive schools (Offene Ganztagesschulen, OGS) free of charge.
The costs of home nursing of the students may be borne by their health insurance, if, for instance, the students need medical care while attending school. Aside from that, the costs for special computer equipment connected to the disability, e. g. needed in case the child is not able to write legibly, is also often borne by health insurance.
In the structured social benefit system, different social benefit providers and rehabilitation providers render services to people with and without disabilities. Which rehabilitation provider renders what service under which conditions depends on the Benefits Law that applies for the rehabilitation provider in question. The rehabilitation providers are obliged to cooperate. This is why services for participation are rendered just like from one provider despite a structured distribution of tasks between the offices. Cooperation is ensured by means of a participation process. Thus, it is not important anymore whether or not the application was rendered to the “right” office. Even if one rehabilitation provider is not responsible, it has to accept the application and independently clarify in consultation with other rehabilitation providers who works on the application and who approves it.
The word apprenticeship primarily stands for the completion of company-based training in a training profession recognized by the government in accordance with the Vocational Training Act (Berufsbildungsgesetz, BBiG) or Crafts Code (Handwerksordnung, HwO). The apprenticeship is carried out in the company and in a vocational school. To support vocational training in companies, a broad spectrum of support possibilities is available from the side of the rehabilitation providers, especially the Federal Labor Office (Bundesagentur für Arbeit).These are, inter alia, consultation and support with the search for a training position, renumeration subsidies, subsidies for technical work aids as well as support from the side of a work assistant during the apprenticeship.
If, due to an impairment, there is special need for support during an apprenticeship, young people with a disability have, inter alia, the possibility to complete their first apprenticeship in a recognized training profession in an Institute for Professional Apprenticeship (Berufsbildungswerk) or a similar institution.
Institutes for Professional Apprenticeship normally are a combination of training facility, vocational school and accommodation. Moreover, the apprentice is supervised during his training. Thus, independence and the development of the apprentice’s personality is promoted. The Federal Labor Office in charge will give you more information on a suitable institution.
The coworkers give the juveniles advice concerning the different apprenticeship possibilities. Applications for educational support can be filed with your Federal Labor Office in charge.
A disability should not prevent anybody from studying. There are different support offers that enable young people with impairments to attend university:
When living expenses of the student can not be borne by the parents or by himself, benefits can be applied for in accordance with the Bundesausbildungsförderungsgesetz. can be applied for at the Federal Ministry of Education (Bundesbildungsministerium).
- Integration Support
The body of integration support can bear specific additional costs arising due to the disability. These are mainly driving costs, costs for sign language interpreters as well as for study helpers that support students in their university routine. The cost of aids needed, such as specific computers, can be borne by the integration support, as long as no primary cost funding agency disagrees.
Employment on the general labor market
Job and apprenticeship placements are primarily the responsibility of the local Federal Labor Offices (Agenturen für Arbeit) and Job Centers, who have a broad spectrum of support opportunities at their disposal, especially for the placement of people with disabilities. For people that need support concerning integration into professional life due to health impairments or disabilities, applying for support measures for participation in professional life can be helpful. The rehabilitation provider in charge, for example the Federal Labor Office, verifies all support possibilities that could come into question. Within the framework of support measures to participate in professional life, a broad and custom-fit range of funding instruments is available in order to secure, create or recreate participation in professional life for people with disabilities. The support measures cover consultation, job orientation and preparation, renumeration subsidies for company-based training, the promotion of company-based and external training and educational support in facilities for vocational rehabilitation (e. g. Institutes for Professional Apprenticeship), promotion of professional development and integration subsidies for people with disabilities and for the severely disabled. Moreover, assistance such as technical working aids or other specific supporting benefits can be subsidized. A work assistance supports severely disabled people with their employment, a reader for the blind may assist blind people or people with severely impaired vision, a sign language interpreter may assist deaf people and a personal assistant may support people with severe physical disabilities. Integration offices are responsible for the financing of necessary work assistance. People that suffer from an impairment at some stage in their life may undergo retraining at a vocational advancement center (Berufsförderungswerk). This form of vocational rehabilitation offers holistic support to enable the reintegration into professional life.
If, due to a disability, it is not possible to work on the general labor market, those affected may work at a (Werkstatt für behinderte Menschen, WfbM) or some. Another possibility for employment is offered by (Budget für Arbeit).
After their arrival in Germany, people with disabilities that fled Ukraine as well as their families need participation counselling independent from the service providers even before applying for precise rehabilitation and participation benefits to support their entitlement to opportunity equality, self-determination and control of the course of their lives. The consultation offers of the complementary independent participation counselling (EUTB®), which are promoted by the Federal Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs (Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales) give consultation throughout Germany, free of charge and with a low threshold. Please, find further information as well as local consultation offers here: . Please, find information concerning complementary independent participation counselling in Ukrainian .
Please turn to the institution responsible in the federal state you live in. Please, find information from the federal states for refugees with and without disabilities from Ukraine as well as support here:
- (Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania)
- (Lower Saxony)
- (North Rhine-Westphalia)
The federal contact center was structured by the Federal Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs, together with the Federal Health Ministry under the coordination of the German Red Cross (Deutsches Rotes Kreuz) and created under participation of the Federal Ministry of the Interior and for Home. Its task is to ensure orderly and transparent evacuation as well as early ad fast mitigation of custom-fit support offers for refugees with disabilities and/or care needs. The federal contact center also supports the 16 federal state coordination agencies (Landeskoordinierungsstellen) with needs-based accommodation by informing the federal states early about the needs so that custom-fit support offers can be found.
for refugees with disabilites and/or care needs
Contact via E-mail:
- In case of accommodation requests for in-patient care and/or integration assistance for refugees that are still abroad (primarily larger groups). When searching for barrier-free living spaces, we regret not to be able to support you.
- For preliminary information concerning healthcare of refugees with special needs in Germany.
With the creation of a coordination center for deaf children, juveniles and families from Ukraine in Germany, offers based on the specific needs of deaf children, juveniles and families from Ukraine shall be made via the coordination center that takes a navigating role. The offer serves as work facilitation for locally, regionally and nationally active associations and their social consultants. Moreover, a nationwide network for deaf children, juveniles and adults from Ukraine is further extended and realized through integration of those affected into the network.
Some of the coworkers of the coordination center are from Ukraine themselves. They are able to evaluate the needs and interests of deaf children and juveniles and families more clearly due to their Russian language skills and knowledge of the situation in Ukraine as well as in Germany. Therefore, they are able to create and provide offers to solve the problems and difficulties in accordance with the individual needs.
Thematic range: school, political and democratic system in Germany, culture and leisure, vocational accompaniment, language/transfer to sign language language schools, family (benefits ranging from medical needs to everyday assistance) women (protection and educational work), children (accommodation, support), information and consultation.
The notification office informs institutions, organizations and private individuals that organize the reception of evacuated children from Ukrainian children’s homes and orphanages in Germany about the procedure of distribution and the institutions in charge in the federal states. It also names contact persons. In case groups of Ukrainian children from children’s homes or orphanages make a request themselves on their way to Germany, the notification office sends them directly to institutions where there are free capacities. As of now, the SOS notification office, operated by SOS Kinderdorf e. V., can be reached as of under 0800 12 606 12( Mon – Sun 8 am to 7 pm). Calling this number is free of charge.